Today, paleontologists limit the term to the genus Pterodactylus or members of the Pterodactyloidea. The front lower jaw bones, the dentaries or ossa dentalia, were at the tip tightly fused into a central symphysis. One 2003 study defined Pterosauria as "The most recent common ancestor of the Anurognathidae, Preondactylus and Quetzalcoatlus and all their descendants.  The small insectivorous Carniadactylus and the larger Eudimorphodon were highly aerial animals and fast, agile flyers with long robust wings. Furthermore, as a whole, azhdarchid front limbs were proportioned similarly to fast-running ungulate mammals.  Despite the considerable forces exerted on it, the humerus is hollow or pneumatised inside, reinforced by bone struts.  Dsungaripteridae were specialist molluscivores, using their powerful jaws to crush the shells of molluscs and crustaceans. , In most media appearances, pterosaurs are depicted as piscivores, not reflecting their full dietary variation. B) The only movable bone in the school is the mandible. Because these early analyses were based on a limited number of taxa and characters, their results were inherently uncertain.  The joint was saddle-shaped and allowed considerable movement to the wing. 3-2). , The pelvis of pterosaurs was of moderate size compared to the body as a whole. Pterosaurs sported coats of hair-like filaments known as pycnofibers, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings.  If a crest was present on the snout, the symphysis could feature a matching mandible crest, jutting out to below. 1.Bones store salts of the mineral _____. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). With highly flexible joints on the wing finger, a broad, triangular wing shape, large eyes and short tail, these pterosaurs were likely analogous to nightjars or extant insectivorous bats, being capable of high manoeuvrability at relatively low speeds. The nyctosaurid Alcione may display adaptations for wing-propelled diving like modern gannets and tropicbirds.. The vague generic term "pterodactyl" is often used for these creatures.  Many children's toys and cartoons feature "pterodactyls" with Pteranodon-like crests and long, Rhamphorhynchus-like tails and teeth, a combination that never existed in nature.  The braincase was relatively large for reptiles.  Insights from other fields of biology were applied to the data obtained. Furthermore, the transition between gliding and flapping flight is not well-understood. Paleontologist Dave Hone noted that the pterosaurs in this film had not been significantly updated to reflect modern research.  In 2013, M.P.  The notarium included three to seven vertebrae, depending on the species involved but also on individual age. Pterosaurs are often referred to by popular media or the general public as "flying dinosaurs", but dinosaurs are defined as the descendants of the last common ancestor of the Saurischia and Ornithischia, which excludes the pterosaurs. , Pterosaur wings were formed by bones and membranes of skin and other tissues. Red marrow can be found in adult bones, but only in the epiphysis of spongy bone cavities. Fossils of the rhamphorhynchoid Sordes, the anurognathid Jeholopterus, and a pterodactyloid from the Santana Formation seem to demonstrate that the wing membrane did attach to the hindlimbs, at least in some species. , Since the 1990s, new discoveries and a more thorough study of old specimens have shown that crests are far more widespread among pterosaurs than previously assumed. Their wide wing membranes probably included and connected the hind legs. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.  The thighbone was rather straight, with the head making only a small angle with the shaft. Finally, at least some pterosaur groups had a membrane that stretched between the legs, possibly connecting to or incorporating the tail, called the uropatagium; the extent of this membrane is not certain, as studies on Sordes seem to suggest that it simply connected the legs but did not involve the tail (rendering it a cruropatagium).  During the 1970s, the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation in Brazil began to produce chalk nodules that, though often limited in size and the completeness of the fossils they contained, perfectly preserved three-dimensional pterosaur skeletal parts. They reproduced by eggs, some fossils of which have been discovered. Parallel adaptations are seen in birds and bats that prey on insects in flight. J. C) The bones of the school contain foramina but no fissures. Czerkas, S.A., and Ji, Q. The two groups overlapped in time, but the earliest pterosaurs in the fossil record are basal pterosaurs, and the latest pterosaurs are pterodactyloids..  Hatzegopteryx was a robustly built predator of relatively large prey, including medium-sized dinosaurs. Advanced pterosaurs are unique in possessing special processes projecting adjacent to their condyle and cotyle, the exapophyses, and the cotyle also may possess a small prong on its midline called a hypapophysis. , There was a clear difference between early pterosaurs and advanced species regarding the form of the fifth digit. um.  The oldest known pterosaurs were already fully adapted to a flying lifestyle. They consist of a long shaft with two bulky ends or extremities. Early-on it was recognised that the small Anurognathidae were nocturnal, aerial insectivores.  Pycnofibers were flexible, short filaments, about five to seven millimetres long and rather simple in structure with a hollow central canal.  However, subsequent cladistic results did not fit this model well. , Two researchers, S. Christopher Bennett in 1996, and paleoartist David Peters in 2000, published analyses finding pterosaurs to be protorosaurs or closely related to them. 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